Beta XL Around 2000 years ago, Z. latifolia was infected by the fungal endophyte Ustilago esculenta which causes swelling in shoot apical tissues, resulting in juicy galls. Incorporation of wild rice into the diet distinctly increased its total phenolic and dietary fiber contents compared to the conventional white rice diet. The stem and leaf sheet extracts of Z. latifolia were reported to have effective antioxidant property and stem extract possesses angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor activity, which could be used for the treatment of hypertension and could be processed into formula feeds for fish and poultry.70 Furthermore, the stem part or the gall of Z. latifolia was reported to have stimulating effects on the innate immune system, via induction of human β-defensin-2. Jenks Addis WL Zhang As noted above, wild rice was recognized as a whole grain by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2006. Total Score Implemented Pacific Second Screening Risk Assessment Results section # questions answered satisfy Zhang et al.26 reported the cardioprotective effects of wild rice in relation to its lipid-lowering effects in rats fed a diet that was high in saturated fat. They also reported that wild rice has fine starch that is resistant to retrogradation. LC Y P One occurs in Eurasia: Manchurian wild rice (Zizania latifolia; perennial). Z. latifolia produces underground as well as surface stems (rhizomes) that form multiple tillers and enable vegetative propagation (Figure1B). D , et al. JO Newman Harris-Janz Thousand Lakes Minnesota Grown Wild Rice The major steps in the processing of a modern wild rice plant are outlined in Figure 1. Kim Epley Mäkelä Turcz ex stapf. SG is a recipient of a Manitoba Health Research Council post-doctoral fellowship. , et al. H Swain . OW RJ However, the plasma and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase and catalase activities were not significantly improved. Pak Nelson During parching, the moisture content of the grains is reduced to approximately 6−8%45 and the drum is continuously rotated. , et al. MC JH has been reported to be a health-promoting food.24,–26 In 1924, the comparative food value of wild rice was investigated by the Minnesota Agricultural Experimental Station and wild rice was found to have “greater food value than the cultivated polished rice.” One of the main reasons for such superiority was better protein quality and higher vitamin B contents.27 Subsequent publications have summarized the agricultural and nutritional features of wild rice28,–31; however, the available literature lacks a comprehensive review on the health benefits of this sacred grain. N There are four species of WR belonging to the genus Zizania. Waller M , et al. The rarer Z. texana species is a perennial plant with small seeds that is native to a single stretch along the Saint Marcos River in Texas. EE Jang Nriagu E , et al. Wild rice (Zizania spp.) The information on this website is not intended to replace a one-on-one relationship with a qualified health care professional and is not intended as medical advice. XQ Liu Like other grains, wild rice is a food commodity that contains approximately 71–84% carbohydrate and 10–18% protein as its main constituents (Table 2).27,28,46,47. HL Swain AM ND Z. caudiflora was reported to have anti-fatigue activity, as analyzed by the forced swimming test and tail suspension test in rats.73 The raw rice and malted barley hydrolyzed rice of Z. caudiflora reduced immobility times in both the forced swimming test and the tail suspension test and it further improved the serum albumin, glucose, and total protein levels, thereby revealing the plant's potent anti-fatigue activity. The grains are typically dried under the sun or over a fire.42 Then, the grains are treated for hulling, which is usually performed by walking or dancing on the dried grains in a container or a hole in the ground.30 The commercialized production of wild rice has gradually brought changes and innovations into the processing of wild rice. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide, This PDF is available to Subscribers Only. , et al. , et al. . Mukherjee Freshly harvested wild rice contains about 45% moisture.43,44 Wild rice is harvested at relatively high moisture content to prevent excessive grain loss due to shattering during the post-harvesting processing.45. 2. The present review article summarizes various features of wild rice and its cultivation, including its plantation, harvest, nutritional composition, and biological properties. Zizania latifolia. 3. Adom Zizania latifolia is a PERENNIAL growing to 3.5 m (11ft 6in). K Wild rice was introduced to Europe through the fur trade. Hitch., and Zizania latifolia Turcz. G-A Martini Wild rice (Ojibwe: manoomin; also called Canada rice, Indian rice, and water oats) is four species of grasses forming the genus Zizania, and the grain that can be harvested from them.The grain was historically gathered and eaten in North America and China.While now a delicacy in North America, the grain is eaten less in China,: … Wang Summary of published studies on potential health benefits of wild rice (Zizania spp.). Zhai JW Wang Moghadasian Other reports have highlighted that wild rice is a gluten-free functional food25 and is considered safe for human consumption.76. Terrell . EW 70 … Hornstra Various compounds were isolated from the swollen culm, and aerial parts of Z. latifolia. Deng EE HF Species that have been harvested by native North Americans for food are Zizania aquatic L., Zizania palustris L., Zizania texana A.S. This is the only known wild rice native to Asia. HL Slavin David . , et al. Luo , et al. L Y MM H CK Brouns Takumi , et al. . . Pip In recent years, greater interest has been paid to further characterizing the health-promoting properties as well as the nutritional profile of this ancient food. Incorporation of wild rice into the atherogenic diet suppressed the increase of lipid droplet accumulation, free fatty acids, and leptin; it also inhibited the decrease of lipoprotein lipase and adipose triglyceride lipase activities. EA Osteoclast-forming suppressive compounds from Makomotake, Properties of wild rice/ground beef mixtures, Rancidity in beef patties and reduction by wild rice, Wild rice as an antioxidant for fresh-frozen and precooked beef patties, Chemical composition, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity and antioxidant activities of few-flower wild rice (, Growth inhibitory activities of crude extracts obtained from herbal plants in the Ryukyu Island on several human colon carcinoma cell lines, Studies of the safety of Chinese wild rice, Effects of dietary carbohydrate replaced with wild rice (, © 2014 International Life Sciences Institute, Influence of sugar label formats on consumer understanding and amount of sugar in food choices: a systematic review and meta-analyses, Gut microbiota–associated trimethylamine, Impact of preconception, pregnancy, and postpartum culinary nutrition education interventions: a systematic review, About International Life Sciences Institute, http://www.auri.org/assets/2012/08/07-12-wild-rice.pdf, http://www.ipni.org/ipni/plantnamesearchpage.do, Receive exclusive offers and updates from Oxford Academic, Acceptance and adoption of biofortified crops in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review. AO OW GM The potential health benefits of wild rice shown in studies reported to date are summarized in Table 6. L Kawagishi . T Wiser Polyunsaturated fatty acids, including linoleic and α-linolenic fatty acids, are the main fatty acids.46,47,51 Other fatty acids include palmitic acid (14–18%), stearic acid (1–1.4%), and oleic acid (12–16.5%). Effect of Finerenone on Chronic Kidney Disease Outcomes in Type 2 Diabetes. E W YY Cragg In view of N balance and economic benefit, Zizania latifolia-duck mutual ecosystem with 25 ducks per 667 m 2 had lower N surplus with less environmental risk, and higher economic benefit. Search for other works by this author on: Biodiversity: a continuing source of novel drug leads, Naturalist's food medicine for your wellness: A synthesis of Siddha and modern medical heritage, World Health Organization(WHO) / Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations(FAO) Expert, Diet, nutrition and the prevention of chronic diseases, Plant products with hypocholesterolemic potentials, Dietary phytosterols reduce probucol-induced atherogenesis in apo E-KO mice, Tall oil-derived phytosterols reduce atherosclerosis in ApoE-deficient mice, Effect of garlic on atherosclerosis and its factors, Effect on the human serum lipoprotein profile of β-glucan, soy protein and isoflavones, plant sterols and stanols, garlic and tocotrienols, The effects of simultaneous administration of dietary conjugated linoleic acid and telmisartan on cardiovascular risks in rats, Designer oils low in n-6:n3 fatty acid ratio beneficially modifies cardiovascular risks in mice, Dietary flaxseed inhibits atherosclerosis in the LDL receptor-deficient mouse in part through antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory actions, Cholesterol-lowering and anti-atherogenic effects of oats in mice, Health benefits of whole grain phytochemicals, Cereal, fruit, and vegetable fiber intake and the risk of cardiovascular disease in elderly individuals, β-glucan from two sources of oat concentrates affect postprandial glycemia in relation to the level of viscosity, Dietary fiber in food and protection against colorectal cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC): an observational study, Phytochemicals and antioxidant activity of milled fractions of different wheat varieties, Plausible mechanisms for the protectiveness of whole grains, Potential health benefits of wild rice and wild rice products: Literature review, Wild rice: domestication of a native North American genus, Encyclopedia of Food Sciences and Nutrition, Wild rice: the Indian's staple and the white man's delicacy, The Wild Rice Gatherers of the Upper Lakes – A Study in American Primitive Economics, The International Plant Names Index (IPNI), Phylogeny and biogeography of the eastern Asian–North American disjunct wild-rice genus (, Genetic variability is correlated with population size and reproduction in American wild rice (, Wild rice – a potential new crop for Finland, Wild rice – Indian food and a modern delicacy, Wild rice – new interest in an old crop, Handbook of Cereal Science and Technology, Comparative study on nutritional value of Chinese and North American wild rice, Preliminary phytochemical investigation of wild rice ergot, Antioxidant activity of commercial wild rice and identification of flavonoid compounds in active fractions, Antioxidant properties of commercial wild rice and analysis of soluble and insoluble phenolic acids, Lipid composition of North American wild rice (, Characterization of starches from wild and long grain brown rice, Sinapate dehydrodimers and sinapate-ferulate heterodimers in cereal dietary fiber, The thiamin, riboflavin, nicotinin acid, and pantothenic acid contents of wild rice (, Note on vitamins and minerals of wild rice, Trace metals in wild rice sold in the United States, Cadmium, copper and lead in wild rice from central Canada, Protein and lysine contents in grains of three species of wild-rice (, Protein and amino acid composition of Chinese and North American wild rice, Purification and characterization of peroxidase from fresh-cut. S M Your email address will not be published. GN Wild rice, (genus Zizania), also called Indian rice, water rice, or water oats, genus of four species of coarse grasses of the family Poaceae, the grain of which is sometimes grown as a delicacy.Despite their name, the plants are not related to true rice (Oryza sativa).Wild rice grows naturally in shallow freshwater marshes and along the … . . P M Modern processing plants are primarily equipped with highly efficient mechanical tools for ensuring high-quality wild rice products. BM F Bingjun Qian Department of Food Science and Technology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai 200240, China L Takamatsu RJ AM It is also a tall plant, with large panicles, many branched florets, and an average seed length of 14.3 mm. Oelke R Wild rice is a good source of calcium, iron, magnesium, potassium, phosphorus, and zinc (Table 3).28,46,47,57,58 Particularly the zinc content in wild rice is higher than in oats, wheat, and corn. The researchers also reported that wild rice had ameliorating effects on insulin resistance in rats fed a high-fat, high-cholesterol diet.78 It was found that wild rice consumption significantly decreased liver triglyceride, free fatty acid, and serum lipocalin-2 levels followed by an increase in adiponectin concentrations in the serum and liver of rats. . Zhang PD palustris) populations in northern Wisconsin suggests high genetic variation, especially among the larger populations in larger lakes.38 Historically consumed as a staple food by Native Americans, wild rice now serves as an economically important specialty commercial crop. The University of Minnesota created a hybrid “wild rice” by crossing native North American wild rice with Zizania latifolia, also known as Manchurian wild rice. The authors have no relevant interests to declare. P K Several sterols were found in an unsaponified fraction, including campesterol (14–52 %), β-sitosterol (19–33%), avenasterol (5–12%), and cycloartenol (5–12%).46,47,51 γ-Oryzanols, present as the phenolic esters, ranged from 459 mg/kg to 730 mg/kg in wild rice lipids.47,51, Wild rice is a rich source of dietary antioxidants including phenolic compounds.49,50 Total phenolic compounds of nine different wild rice varieties were reported to vary from 419 ± 14 mg to 588 ± 27 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/kg. The book reflects the pharmaceutical achievements and developments of East Asia before the 16th century. . PK Jiang Oelke 1. Anwar The hypocholesterolemic properties of wild rice were reported to be mainly attributed to the increased rate of fecal cholesterol excretion.24. Epley The current review summarizes the nutrients and bioactive compounds of Z. latifolia, and health benefits of its seeds. Crossref. Kaneshiro For example, elevated levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) have been recognized as one of the most important risk factors for the development of atherosclerosis. DG EW Unfortunately, like most traditional foods, wild rice has not escaped industrialization. XL Jiang Wu BM This study also reported increases in superoxide dismutase activity and reductions in malondialdehyde concentrations in the serum and liver tissues of wild-rice-fed animals. PB MF . Consumption of sufficient amounts of dietary fiber has been associated with reduced risk of obesity,18 cardiovascular disease,19 type II diabetes,20 and colorectal cancer.21 However, whole grains may undergo a refining process to remove germ and bran, causing loss of substantial amounts of functional compounds including vitamins, minerals, dietary fiber, and other phytochemicals.22,23 Unlike many conventional whole grains, wild rice is not routinely refined. Aiken K Hoover et al.53 reported a much lower gelatinization temperature for wild rice starch (51–64°C). W Walters , et al. Y The current review summarizes the nutrients and bioactive compounds of Z. latifolia, and health benefits of its seeds. Bunzel DAJM Johnson The latter exerts anti-fatigue, anti-inflammatory, and anti-allergic effects. Kindly be alert that the CTM knowledge and ancient formulas given above are likely NOT medically proven and may contain misconceptions. Zhai , et al. FW Cholesterol-lowering and anti-atherogenic effects of wild rice have also been observed in low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice.24 In these mice, supplementation of wild rice to an atherogenic diet for over 24 weeks significantly reduced the plasma concentrations of low-density and very-low-density lipoproteins. , et al. The temperature in the drum is initially controlled to remain under 135°C, and the grain temperature in the drum is monitored regularly using laser thermometers; when the grain temperature reaches 135°C, the kernel is hardened and the starch is usually completely gelatinized at this temperature, and ready to be removed. 6.01 Evidence of substantial reproductive failure in native habitat n 0 ... 8.04 Tolerates, or benefits from, mutilation or cultivation y 1 8.05? PL seems to have originated in North America and then dispersed into Eastern Asia and other parts of the world. Zizania latifolia, also known as Manchurian wild rice or water bamboo shoots, is the only member of the wild rice genus Zizania native in Asia. Archibold Bunzel ← 8 Health Benefits of Lemna Minor – Ben Cao Medical Book, Health Benefits of Myriophyllum Spicatum – Ben Cao Medical Book →, 5 Health Benefits of Soju - Ben Cao Medical Book, 5 Health Benefits of Oxalis Corniculata - Ben Cao Medical Book, 5 Health Benefits of Sambucus javanica - Ben Cao Medical Book, 5 Health Benefits of Lycopodium Japonicum - Ben Cao Medical Book, 6 Amazing Health Benefits of Trifoliate Orange - Ben Cao Medical Book, Barn Swallows’ Mud Nest As Medicine – Ben Cao Medical Book, Bees’ Nest As Medicine – Ben Cao Medical Book, Dung Balls As Medicine – Ben Cao Medical Book. Hence, strategies to lower cholesterol are commonly recommended worldwide, including suggestions for improving healthy eating behavior.7 One such dietary modification involves the inclusion of plant sterols in the daily diet.8,9 Other dietary components, including dietary fiber, garlic products, soy proteins, omega-3 fatty acids, and others, have also been shown to reduce the risk for chronic diseases.10,–15, Whole grains are excellent sources of dietary fiber, vitamins, minerals, lignans, phytosterols, and antioxidant phenolic compounds.16 The synergistic effects of these functional components have been suggested to contribute to the health benefits associated with whole grains. , et al. Ezatagha Product details Product Dimensions: 6.5 x 0.8 x 9.1 inches ; 7 ounces PF . B Y This suggests that wild rice has high potential for commercial applications in the food industry. Johnson Lorenz Recent observations suggest that long-term consumption of wild rice prevents atherogenesis in LDL-r-KO mice.24 Such information, in addition to other pieces of evidence summarized in this review, suggest that additional investigation into the functionality of wild rice for the prevention and/or treatment of a number of chronic diseases is warranted. Charles Darwin, originator of the biological theory of evolution, regards the book as the “ancient Chinese encyclopedia”. It is now cultivated in the northern parts of Canada as well as Minnesota, Wisconsin, California, Oregon, and Idaho, Australia, and some Asian and European countries.31. LS PB Hesseltine Other antioxidant compounds in wild rice include ferulic acid dehydrodimer and ferulic acid trimers. Zizania aquatica L., Zizania palustris L., and Zizania texana Hitche are native to North America, whereas Zizania latifolia (Griseb) Turcz is native to China, Japan, and Vietnam . Z. palustris grows predominantly in the Great Lakes region of the United States and Canada in shallow lakes and rivers.37 It is an annual tall plant that is slender with a few flower panicles and an average seed length of 16.7 mm. G This property of Z. latifolia could be used, potentially, for the prevention of type-I allergic reactions. T-S This level of antioxidant phenolic compounds is approximately 9–13 times higher than in conventional white rice (46 ± 1 mg GAE/kg).50 Ferulic acid was found to be the most abundant phenolic acid (241.58 mg/ kg to 355.41 mg/ kg) in wild rice, followed by sinapic acid, which ranged from 55.13 mg/kg to 96.94 mg/kg.50 Several other phenolic acids such as ρ-coumaric, vanillic, syringic, ρ-hydroxybenzoic acids, 8-8′ disinapic acid, and 8-O-4′ diferulic acid were also identified.50 In addition to ferulic acid, wild rice also contains cinnamic acids such as 3,4,5–trimethoxycinnamic acid and its esters. Analysis of genetic variability among 17 American wild rice (Zizania palustris var. AL Panahi Palmitoyl dilinolein, trilinolein, and oleyllinoleoyl linolenin are the major triacylglycerols in wild rice (Table 5).46,47,51,60, Amino acid composition of wild rice protein, Some studies have reported that wild rice grains contain considerable amounts of phytosterols, ranging from 70 g to 145 g of sterol/kg of wild rice lipid, which is at least 2.6 times higher than in brown rice, rice bran, wheat bran, and germ.28,46,47,51 Plant sterols are available at an approximate range of 7–15% of total lipid extracted; this translates to approximately up to 129 mg of plant sterols in 100 g of wild rice. Y Luo This plant has an outcrossing mating system and well-developed rhizomes, and it can reproduce both sexually and asexually through seeds, rhizomes and tiller buds ( Guo et al. Sosulski Manchurian wild rice (Zizania latifolia; ZL) is a vegetable broadly eaten in Asian countries, especially in China.It is also known that the stem of ZL becomes swollen when the plant is infected with the parasitic fungus, Ustilago esculenta on the Ustilaginaceae family in the class of Heterobasidiomycetes.People have been … D , et al. Moghadasian E Furthermore, additional processing methods, as described below, have been developed to increase the yield and quality of the wild rice. PB Kneesh This gender-related variation may be due to the presence of endogenous estrogen. Kerckhoffs H Zhang . Day , et al. MA is the recipient of a Saudi Arabian studentship for the Master degree program. Anderson Nishimura RN Terrell Abouazra The stem of Zizania latifolia is used as heat-clearing drug in traditional Chinese medicine (CTM) and widely adopted in treating different diseases and health problems, such as diabetes. Scarification involves polishing the outer impermeable layer of the kernel, mainly to obtain a shorter, more consistent cooking time.43 At the end of the process, the grains are cleaned or separated from the hulls and chaff using a vacuum aspirator. D Tang Diet and lifestyle modifications are known to affect the incidence of chronic diseases including obesity, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, stroke, and some types of cancer.6, Many genetic and environmental risk factors have been identified for the development of chronic diseases. Available in commercial wild rice include ferulic acid trimers a gluten-free functional and... Nutrition Reviews, Volume 72, Issue 4, 1 April 2014, Pages 227–236, https //doi.org/10.1111/nure.12101. Research program is currently supported by the US food and Drug Administration FDA... Activities support the health-promoting properties of wild rice were reported to date are summarized in Table 6 (. 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